General characteristics of Disinfectants
ALCOHOLS (Isopropyl or Ethyl Alcohol)
- Wide germicidal activity, non corrosive, but poses a fire hazard.
- Limited residual activity due to evaporation.
- Alcohols provide limited activity in the presence of organic matter.
- Not considered effective against bacterial or fungal spores.
- Excellent for disinfecting instruments or other small objects.
- Too expensive for general use in the hatchery.
- Must use as a 70-95% concentration for effectiveness.
HALOGENS (Iodines or hypochlorites)
- Provide wide germicidal activity but are corrosive.
- Limited activity when in the presence of organic matter.
- Poor residual activity, low toxicity, but may stain surfaces.
- Not effective as sporocidal agents.
- Effective at low concentrations for disinfecting clean, small objects.
- Low cost but requires frequent applications.
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS
- Limited germicidal range.
- Not sporocidal, effective against vegetative bacteria, fungi and
- Reduced efficiency in the presence of organic matter.
- Limited effectiveness in soaps, detergents and hard water salts.
- Non-irritating, non-corrosive and low toxicity.
- Residual activity is limited by the amount of recontamination.
- Good disinfectant for use on cleaned surfaces.
- Low cost.
PHENOLICS (Single or Multiple)
- Wide germicidal range, not sporocidal.
- Low toxicity and low corrosiveness.
- Very effective in the presence of organic matter.
- Good residual activity and deodorizer.
- Low to moderate cost.
COAL TAR DISTILLATES ( Cresol and Cresylic Acid)
- Wide germicidal activity, not sporocidal.
- Corrosive and toxic at high concentrations.
- Excellent residual activity with heavy odor.
- Highly efficient in presence of organic matter.
- Not well suited for use near eggs or chicks due to noxious gases.
- Moderately expensive.
- Wide germicidal activity, sporocidal and fungicidal.
- Slight to moderate efficiency in presence of organic matter.
- Slight residual activity.
- Moderately toxic.
- Moderate cost.
OXIDIZING AGENTS (Hydrogen peroxide, Potassium Permanganate)
- Moderate to wide germicidal activity, not sporocidal.
- Rendered ineffective in the presence of organic matter.
- Moderately corrosive, limited toxicity.
- Poor to limited residual activity.
- More valuable as a cleansing and deodorizing agent.
- Moderate cost.